Tuva

   Established in 1921 in the wake of the regional victory of the Red Army, the Tuvan People’s Republic (occasionally referred to as Tannu-Tuva) was formed out of the respective territorial claims of Mongolia, China and Tsarist Russia, becoming the third independent state to adopt Marxism-Leninism. Its ideological foundations are outlined in its first constitution: “For the past few decades, a revolutionary movement against . . . oppression and exploitation from the ruling classes has been developing in every country. . . . The most heroic example in this struggle is the great October Revolution, which freed Russia’s workers and peasants from the yoke of autocracy and domination by bourgeoisie and the land owners. The Tuvan People, subjugated and exploited for centuries by internal and external oppressors . . . established the power of the working people in the form of the national government in the year 1921.”
   Almost entirely feudal, nomadic, Buddhist and Shamanist, the state of 300,000 citizens was led by the Tuvan People’s Revolutionary Party, which sought “completion of the anti-feudal revolution, the actualisation of all democratic conversions and passage to the socialist stage of non-capitalistic development.” Always under the hegemony of the Soviet Union (evident in its economic policy, adopting the New Economic Policy between 1921 and 1929), Tuva became in 1944 an “autonomous region” of the Soviet Union under the leadership of Party Secretary Toka, relinquishing its de jure independence in what has been described as “dubious circumstances.” Soviet industrialization enabled a remarkable expansion of basic utilities to the most remote of villages and ensured rapid urbanization in several centers of population, with the capital, Kyzyl, eventually housing 100,000 citizens. Such industrialization engineered a division between rural, nomadic Tuvans, who retained their Turkic language and mysticism, and urban citizens, who, with the influx of immigrants from other Soviet territories, became Russified, favoring Russian dialects and secularism.
   Since 1993, Tuva has been a Republic of the Russian Federation with its own president, retaining a fifty-percent command economy and most Soviet bureaucracies. The successor party has recently introduced nominal market reforms against the wishes of most peasants and nomenklatura members, who remain powerful politically and populist and collectivist in sentiment. These reforms have aided the growth of the largely Russian middle class, who hold trade links with Russia, Turkey, China and other central Asian states.

Historical dictionary of Marxism. . 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Tuva —    Tuva lies north of Mongolia, east of Central Asia, and south of Southern Siberia, and the Tuvans are pastoralists of mixed Turkic Mongolian descent with genealogical ties going back to Chinggis (Genghis) Khan. The area was under the control… …   Historical dictionary of shamanism

  • Tuvá — Forma adaptada a la ortografía y pronunciación españolas del nombre de esta república de la Federación Rusa: «Una fuerte nevada paralizaba ayer el transporte en Moscú, en las repúblicas siberianas rusas de Altái [...] y Tuvá» (Tiempos@ [Bol.]… …   Diccionario panhispánico de dudas

  • Tuva — Tuvà dkt …   Bendrinės lietuvių kalbos žodyno antraštynas

  • Tuva — For other uses, see Tuva (disambiguation). Tuva Republic Республика Тыва (Russian) Тыва Республика (Tuvan)   Republic   …   Wikipedia

  • Tuvá — República Tuvá Республика Тыва Тыва Республика Entidad subnacional …   Wikipedia Español

  • Tuva — /tooh veuh/, n., pl. Tuvas, (esp. collectively) Tuva for 1. 1. a member of a people living in the Tuva AR and adjacent areas. 2. the Turkic language of the Tuva people. Also, Tuvinian /tooh vin ee euhn/. * * * ▪ republic, Russia also called  Tyva …   Universalium

  • Tuva — Tuwa Flagge Wappen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Tuva — /tooh veuh/, n., pl. Tuvas, (esp. collectively) Tuva for 1. 1. a member of a people living in the Tuva AR and adjacent areas. 2. the Turkic language of the Tuva people. Also, Tuvinian /tooh vin ee euhn/ …   Useful english dictionary

  • Tuva — Touva République de Touva Республика Тыва (russe) Тыва Республика (touvain) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • tuva — (Qax, Zaqatala) kəsilmiş yoğun uzun ağac. – Bu gün bir tuva gətirmişəm …   Azərbaycan dilinin dialektoloji lüğəti

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.